‘The Conspiracy Against Nicholas II’, with Paul Gilbert

CLICK ON THE IMAGE ABOVE TO WATCH VIDEO

NOTE: All of the articles pertaining to Nicholas II and his family which were originally published in my Royal Russia News blog, have been moved to this Nicholas II blog. This article was originally posted on 8 August 2018 in my Royal Russia News blog – PG

The Conspiracy Against Nicholas II is a short seven minute interview with researcher Paul Gilbert, produced by the Monastery of St John the Forerunner Mesa Potamos in Cyprus.

Paul speaks about the Emperor’s abdication on 15th March [O.S. 2nd March] 1917, and the ‘treachery, cowardice and deceit’ which surrounded him.

He further discusses the main plots which aimed to overthrow Nicholas II from his throne, by his ministers, and even members of his own family. He then discusses some of the myths regarding Nicholas’ II alleged weakness as a ruler, and allegations that his death was met with indifference by the Russian people.

The video includes coloured pictures of the Romanovs and other historical figures, by acclaimed Russian colourist Olga Shirnina, from the forthcoming book The Romanov Royal Martyrs: What Silence Could Not Conceal, published in 2019.

The Conspiracy Against Nicholas II is the fifth of a special multi-episode tribute featuring exclusive interviews with Mesa Potamos Monastery research colleagues: Helen Azar, Helen Rappaport, Nicholas B.A. Nicholson and Paul Gilbert. Click HERE to view ALL six episodes.

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Paul Gilbert is an independent researcher specializing in the life, reign and era of Emperor Nicholas II, and who is dedicated to clearing the name of Russia’s much slandered Tsar through his news blog Nicholas II. Emperor. Tsar. Saint., his semi-annual journal Sovereign, and Conferences. The 1st International Nicholas II Conference was held on 27th October 2018, in St. John of Shanghai Church in Colchester, England; the 2nd International Nicholas II Conference will be held at the Holy Trinity Monastery in Jordanville, New York on Saturday, 15 May 2021.

© Paul Gilbert. 6 December 2019

Summary of Nicholas II Conference in England – 27 October 2018

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Archpriest Andrew Phillips and Paul Gilbert, St. John of Shanghai Orthodox Church

NOTE: All of the articles pertaining to Nicholas II and his family which were originally published in my Royal Russia News blog, have been moved to this Nicholas II blog. This article was originally published on 31 October 2018 in my Royal Russia News blog – PG

On Saturday 27th October, more than 100 people from 11 countries attended the 1st International Nicholas II. Emperor. Tsar. Saint. Conference in England.

The venue for the event was St. John of Shanghai Orthodox Church in Colchester, Essex, which is situated about an hour’s train journey from London. It was truly meaningful and appropriate that the conference should take place at the Church of St John of Shanghai, who did so much for the glorification of the Holy Royal Passion-Bearers.

This historic event brought people from no less than 11 countries: England, Wales, Ireland, the Netherlands, France, Denmark, Vatican City, Russia and from as far away as Canada, America and Australia.

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More than 100 people from 11 countries attended the Nicholas II Conference

Among the guests was Metropolitan Jonah (Paffhausen), who travelled from Washington, DC for the event. His Eminence is a retired American Orthodox bishop who served as the primate of the Orthodox Church in America (OCA) with the title The Most Blessed Archbishop of Washington, Metropolitan of All America and Canada from his election on November 12, 2008, until his resignation on July 7, 2012. Metropolitan Jonah was the first convert to the Orthodox faith to have been elected as the primate of the OCA.

On June 15, 2015, Metropolitan Jonah was released from the Orthodox Church in America in order for him to be accepted as a bishop of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia.

Greetings for the conference and its attendees were received by letter from Vice-Chairman of the Department for External Relations of the Moscow Patriarchate Archimandrite Philaret; Head of the Russian Imperial House Her Imperial Highness Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna; and His eminence Archbishop Gregorios of Thyateira and Great Britain.

The conference featured 5 speakers, who presented 7 papers, some of which were dedicated to clearing the name of the much slandered tsar.

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‘Romanovs During the First World War: Charity and Heroism’ exhibit

The Grand Duchess Elizabeth Romanov Society UK provided 10 exhibit banners from the society’s exhibition Romanovs During the First World War: Charity and Heroism. The exhibit featured photos, post cards and documents from the Russian archives and private collections. The exhibition was produced by GDER society, St Tichon’s Theological University, Moscow, and The Society of Card Collectors. All the information in English.

Holy Trinity Publications set up a table offering copies for sale of ‘The Romanovs’ Under House Arrest‘, co-authored by Marilyn Swezey, and ‘The Romanovs: Family of Faith and Charity‘, a children’s book by Maria Maximova.

Royal Russia Publications also set up a table offering copies of ALL current and back issues of ‘Sovereign: The Life and Reign of Emperor Nicholas II‘.

Special thanks to Father Andrew Phillips rector of St John of Shanghai Orthodox Church, for his enthusiasm and support of this event, and for the opportunity to use St John of Shanghai Church as the venue for this historic conference.

To my dearest friends Mike and Julia Carr, and David Clark for all their dedication and hard work in helping to set up the church and meeting hall, assisting with registration, book sales, lunch, teas and coffee, etc.

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The Nicholas II Conference proceedings have been published in a special ‘limited edition’ issue of Sovereign. The No. 9 Conference issue includes all seven papers + photographs. Copies are available from the Royal Russia Bookshop. Price: $25.00 CAD + postage.

Given that the conference was held in England, it seemed only fitting the the cover photo of this special issue should feature Tsar Nicholas II, who served as Colonel in Chief of The Royal Scots Greys from 1894-1918.

NOTE: the 2nd International Nicholas II. Emperor. Tsar. Saint. Conference will be held on Saturday 15th May 2021, at the Holy Trinity in Jordanville, New York

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© Paul Gilbert. 1 December 2019

The Truth About Nicholas II

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ANNUAL CHRISTMAS APPEAL

I am reaching out to friends and supporters for donations to support me in my personal mission to clear the name of Nicholas II, and to those who share an interest in Russia’s last Imperial family.

Your donation helps support my work, including research, the cost of translations, maintenance of my news blog: Nicholas II. Emperor. Tsar. Saint., the organization and promotion of the 2nd International Nicholas II Conference in the United States (Spring 2021), other events, and more!

If you enjoy all the articles, news, photos, and videos, please help support my work in the coming year ahead by making a donation.

Click HERE to make a donation by CREDIT CARD or PAYPAL

or Click HERE to make a donation by GOFUNDME

Click HERE to make a donation by PERSONAL CHECK

Thank you for your consideration.

PAUL GILBERT. 1 December 2019

Paul Gilbert: “Yekaterinburg is my favorite Russian city”

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Paul Gilbert at the monument to Nicholas II, Ganina Yama

Last week, Russian journalist Olga Koshkina asked me for an interview, the article of which was published in the October 22nd 2019 issue of ‘Oblastnaya Gazeta,’ a daily newspaper published in Ekaterinburg.

Oblastnaya Gazeta’ is the official publication of state authorities of the Sverdlovsk Region, the founders of whom are the Governor and the Legislative Assembly of the Sverdlovsk Region.

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Paul Gilbert at the Church on the Blood during Tsars Days 2018’in Ekaterinburg

Koshkina’s article ‘Пол Гилберт: «Екатеринбург – мой любимый российский город»’ – ‘Paul Gilbert: “Ekaterinburg – My Favourite Russian City,” describes my love of the Ural city, my interest in the Romanov dynasty, my efforts to clear the name of Nicholas II, and the ‘Imperial Route’ project.

NOTE: this article is only in Russian. If you use Google Translate, you can still get the gist of the article in English

© Paul Gilbert. 22 October 2019

NICHOLAS II 2020 CALENDAR

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LIMITED PRINTING OF ONLY 200 COPIES!

I am pleased to offer copies of my 2020 calendar, dedicated to Emperor, Tsar and Saint Nicholas II, with a limited printing of only 200 copies!

Each month features an iconic full-page black and white photograph of Russia’s last monarch, printed on quality glossy stock.

Nearly 70 major holidays in the United States, Canada, Great Britain, Australia and Russia are featured, with room to write in your own special dates and events.

ALL net proceeds from the sale of each calendar will go into my research, including the cost of translating articles and news from Russian archival and media sources.

The price of each calendar is $10 + postage (rates are noted on the order page, link below). I can ship to any country by Canada Post

NOTE: the postage rates quoted are for SINGLE copies ONLY! If you want to order more than one calendar, then please contact me by email at royalrussia@yahoo.com

Payment can be made securely online with a credit card or PayPal or by personal check, money order or cash – click HERE to download and print a mail order form

Thank you for your support of my research and dedication to clearing the name of Russia’s much slandered tsar

© Paul Gilbert. 21 August 2019

Controversy over portrait of Empress Alexandra Fedorovna in Pavlovsk

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Portrait of Empress Alexandra Feodorovna. Artist: A. Muller-Norden. Canvas, oil. 1896

This lovely portrait of the Empress Alexandra Fedorovna is among my favourites. It reflects the Empress’s youth and beauty, years before the burdens of Court life and her son’s illness took their toll on her health.

Before the 1917 Revolution, the portrait hung in the Tsar’s Reception Room in the Alexander Palace at Tsarskoye Selo. It is currently in the collection of the Pavlovsk State Museum.

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Muller-Norden originally hung in the tsar’s Reception Room in the Alexander Palace

Given that neither Nicholas II and Alexandra Feodorovna lived at Pavlovsk, how did this portrait end up the palace-museum collection?

‘In 1951 a government decision handed the Alexander Palace to the Ministry of Defense. The Naval Department used the building as a top-secret, submarine tracking research institute of the Baltic Fleet. As a result, the former palace would be strictly off-limits to visitors for the next 45 years.

‘The palace’s stocks that were among the evacuated items in the Central Repository of Museum Stocks from the Suburban Palace-Museums passed to the Pavlovsk Palace Museum. A total of 5,615 items were moved from the palace to Pavlovsk. Of these, nearly 200 pieces were originally from the Alexander Palaces’ three ceremonial halls: the Portrait, Semi-Circular and Marble Halls. These include 39 pieces of porcelain, 41 paintings, 73 decorative bronze pieces, and 28 pieces of furniture.’

Source: ‘My Russia. The Rebirth of the Alexander Palace’ by Paul Gilbert. Published in ‘Royal Russia No. 3 (2013), pgs. 1-11

Since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, and in particular since the restoration of the Alexander Palace, the return of these objects has been a bone of contention between the two palace-museums. During a visit to Pavlovsk several years ago, I raised the subject with one of the Directors at Pavlovsk. “If we return these exhibits to the Alexander Palace, then we [Pavlovsk] will have nothing,” he declared.

Personally, I believe that Pavlovsk have a moral responsibility to return all of the items transferred there in 1951. Their history belongs to the Alexander Palace. It seems that the Minister of Culture of the Russian Federation Vladimir Medinsky will have the final say. Let us hope that he does the right thing, and order the return of these items to the Alexander Palace, where they can be put on display in the rooms from which they originated.

© Paul Gilbert. 20 August 2019

The Alexander Palace as a Museum 1918-1951

During the Soviet years, the Alexander Palace was established as a museum. This video shows a group walking through the former rooms of Nicholas II and his family. The year of 1918 is noted in the video, however, this is incorrect – PG

In 1918 the former residence of Tsar Nicholas II and his family was established as a museum and open to the public. The exhibit included the historical interiors
in the central part of the building and the private apartments of the last tsar and his family located in the east wing of the palace.

In 1919, the west wing was turned into a rest home for staff of the People’s commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD), while on the second floor of the east wing the former rooms of Nicholas II’s children became an orphanage named after the “Young Communards”.

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Enfilade of ceremonial halls of the Alexander Palace. 1920s

The Soviet regime were hostile towards the ‘Romanov Museum,’ and made constant threats throughout the 1930s to close the museum and sell off its treasures. Luckily, the museum staff managed to dissuade the government from this step and the museum operated up until the beginning of the Second World War.

In the first months after the Nazi invasion chandeliers, carpets, some items of furniture, eighteenth-century marble and porcelain articles were evacuated from the Alexander Palace. Most of the palace furnishings remained in the halls.

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A cemetery for members of the SS was established in front of the Alexander Palace 

During the occupation of Pushkin the palace housed the German army staff and the Gestapo. The cellars became a prison and the square in front of the palace a cemetery for members of the SS.

The palace survived World War II with minor damage, according to military records—unlike the Catherine Palace, the Palace of Pavlovsk and the Grand Palace of Peterhof, which were almost completely destroyed during the German occupation. Although the exterior was damaged, the majority of the interiors were reported as unharmed, with the exception of some rooms which received moderate to serious shell damage.

The palace had been looted by the retreating Nazi’s which resulted in many of the palaces works of art, furniture and other items being stolen. According to the Ministry of Cultural Affairs of the Russian Federation, registered inventory for the Alexander Palace had—30,382 items, of which 22,628 items were recorded as lost or stolen at the end of World War II.

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Representatives of the State Emergency Commission and museum workers examine the destruction of the large central hall of the Alexander Palace. Photo by S. G. Gasilov. May 1944.

At the end of the war the Alexander Palace was mothballed. Conservation work was carried out in the palace and in 1946 it was handed over to the USSR Academy of Sciences for the storage of the collections of its Institute of Russian Literature and to house a display of the All-Union Pushkin Museum. As a consequence in 1947-51 refurbishment began in the palace, in the course of which it was intended to restore the surviving Quarenghi interiors and extant fragments of décor and also to recreate the interiors from the time of Nicholas I and Nicholas II. However, during the work many elements in the décor of Empress Alexandra Feodorovna’s Maple and Palisander Drawing-Rooms, as well as Nicholas II’s (Moresque) Dressing-Room were actually destroyed. These rooms of the palace were recreated to a project by the architect L.M. Bezverkhny (1908–1963) “in accordance with the architectural norms of the time of Quarenghi and Pushkin”.

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Opening day of the All-Union Museum of A. S. Pushkin (Alexander Palace), on
10th June 1949

In 1951 a government decision handed the Alexander Palace to the Ministry of Defense. The Naval Department used the building as a top-secret, submarine tracking research institute of the Baltic Fleet. As a result, the former palace would be strictly off-limits to visitors for the next 45 years.

The palace’s stocks that were among the evacuated items in the Central Repository of Museum Stocks from the Suburban Palace-Museums passed to the Pavlovsk Palace Museum. A total of 5,615 items were moved from the palace to Pavlovsk. Of these, nearly 200 pieces were originally from the Alexander Palaces’ three ceremonial halls: the Portrait, Semi-Circular and Marble Halls. These include 39 pieces of porcelain, 41 paintings, 73 decorative bronze pieces, and 28 pieces of furniture.

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Pavlovsk’s collection today includes Imperial gowns originally from the Alexander Palace

It is also interesting to note that the Pavlovsk Palace Museum also have a large number of elegant evening gowns, dresses, shoes, hats, umbrellas, gloves, handbags, fans among other personal items of the Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna and the Empress Alexandra Feodorovna, neither of whom ever resided in Pavlovsk. They are from the Alexander Palace, however, they are now on permanent display in the Museum of the Emperor’s Dress, which is located on the ground floor, of the northern semicircular wing of Pavlovsk Palace, the ground floor.

NOTE: this text has been excerpted from ’My Russia. The Rebirth of the Alexander Palace,’ published in Royal Russia No. 3 (2013), pgs. 1-11.

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The Museum of the Russian Imperial Family in the Alexander Palace is expected to reopen at the end of 2019, or early 2020. Under restoration since August 2015, the new multi-museum complex will feature a number of reconstructed historic interiors of Nicholas II and Alexandra Feodorovna. Click HERE to read more articles about the history and restoration of the Alexander Palace

© Paul Gilbert. 8 August 2019

Sovereign No. 10 Spring 2019 – NOW IN STOCK!

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I am pleased to announce that SOVEREIGN No. 10 SPRING 2019 – is now available from the ROYAL RUSSIA BOOKSHOP.

Our TENTH issue features 130 pages, with 8 full-length articles, including 5 FIRST ENGLISH translations of works by Russian historians, plus 3 additional articles + 119 black and white photos:

1. Nicholas II in the Words of His Contemporaries by Pyotr Multatuli. Translated by William Lee 1st ENGLISH TRANSLATION

2. Nicholas II in the Historical Memory of the Kuban Cossacks by O.V. Matveev. Translated by William Lee 1st ENGLISH TRANSLATION

3. The Wardrobe of the Imperial Family: The History of the Alexander Palace Collection by A.S. Rognatev. Translated by William Lee 1st ENGLISH TRANSLATION

4. Investigator Sokolov: “The Tsar’s Suffering Is Russia’s Suffering” by Y.Y. Vorobyevsky. Translated by Elizabeth S. Yellen 1st ENGLISH TRANSLATION

5. Novonikolayevsk: Born of the People’s Ambition and the Tsar’s Beneficence, Emperor Nicholas II and the City of Novosibirsk: Parallels Between Past and Present by E. Tsybizov. Translated by Elizabeth S. Yellen 1st ENGLISH TRANSLATION

6. Memorandum to Tsar Nicholas II by Pyotr Durnovo

7. My Mission to Clear the Name of Russia’s Last Tsar by Paul Gilbert

8. Nicholas II in Moscow. Photographic Memories of Russia’s Last Emperor

and Sovereign News – featuring news highlights from Russian media resources

Launched in 2015, a total of 12 will be in print by the end of this year, including 3 Special Issues. Click HERE For more information on our journal Sovereign: The Life and Reign of Emperor Nicholas II

© Paul Gilbert. 13 May 2019

‘NICHOLAS II. PORTRAITS by Paul Gilbert NOW IN STOCK!

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CLICK ON THE IMAGE ABOVE TO ORDER YOUR COPY!

I am pleased to offer copies of my new book, Nicholas II. Portraits, which explores a century of portraits of Russia’s last emperor and tsar.

The first book of its kind ever published, Nicholas II. Portraits explores a century of portraits of Russia’s last emperor and tsar.

Beautiful colour covers (front and back), 140 pages, and richly illustrated with 175 black and white photographs, (many full-page), with detailed and informative captions.

This unique title features an introduction, as well as numerous short articles, including: Serov’s Unfinished 1900 Portrait of Nicholas II A Nun’s Gift to Russia’s New Tsar. The Fate of a PortraitGalkin’s Ceremonial Portrait of Nicholas II Discovered; and more!

Famous portraits and their respective artists are all represented, including Serov, Repin, Lipgart, Tuxen, Bakmanson, Becker, Bogdanov-Belsky, Kustodiev, among others.

The last section (28 pages) of the book is dedicated to the works of contemporary Russian artists, who have painted outstanding portraits of Nicholas II since the fall of the Soviet Union.

It is interesting to note that my research for this book was primarily from Russian sources, and I discovered portraits which were new, even to me!

Nicholas II. Portraits is the first of a two-volume set. The second volume Nicholas II. Monuments will be published in the summer of 2019.

© Paul Gilbert. 25 March 2019

New web site dedicated to the era of Nicholas II launched in Ekaterinburg

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The multimedia museum “Russia – My History” in Ekaterinburg was the venue for the event

On 16th February 2019, historian Peter Multatuli, Ph.D., arrived in the Urals to present a unique project. Multatuli, who is considered the country’s leading authority on the life and reign of Nicholas II, talked with local historians about the myths surrounding Russia’s last tsar, about his achievements and reforms in particular.

The presentation of the new web site “The Russian Empire in the Era of the Reign of Emperor Nicholas II ” («Российская империя в эпоху правления императора Николая Второго») took place in the multimedia museum “Russia – My History” in Ekaterinburg.  The event was hosted by the Club of Historians, a joint project of the St. Catherine Foundation and the History Park.

“The St. Catherine Foundation took part in the Tsar’s Days events held in Ekaterinburg in July 2018, and the presentation of this new site is the completion of the Imperial Year. This site is not about the Tsar’s family, it is about the many achievements of the Russian Empire during the reign of the last Russian sovereign,” noted Tatyana Balanchuk, project manager of the St. Catherine Foundation.

“It was one of the greatest epochs of reforming the country” added Peter Multatuli – “the country that the emperor accepted in 1894, and the country which he was forced to give up in 1917, were very different countries. Everything was not perfect, however, more reforms were carried out in Russia under Emperor Nicholas II,  than that undertaken by either Peter the Great and Alexander II.”

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Russian historian Peter Multatuli, Ph.D.

The new site is based on the calendar “Russia in the Rra of the Reign of Emperor Nicholas II”, released last year. It has fact-filled sections detailing the essence of reforms under Nicholas II, as well as debunking the many myths which exist to this day about his reign. “We realized that we needed a more complete source of information, and launched a website which details the achievements and reforms during the reign Nicholas II,” added Balanchuk.

The site became part of a large project organized by the St. Catherine Foundation: in conjunction with the multimedia museum Russia – My History, outdoor events, as well as workshops and lectures on late 19th and early 20th century Russian history. The site was launched in September 2018 and aroused great interest among a wide audience of more than 600 thousand people.

Peter Multatuli, Candidate of Historical Sciences, gave a presentation lecture at the Saturday event. He noted, that “myths are designed to ignore facts, and to defame the last Russian tsar.” For example, the events of 9th January 1905 (Bloody Sunday) were not a planned punishment of the “insidious ruler over the unhappy workers.”

Multatuli went on to state that “although the city at the time of the execution of the Romanovs bore the name of St. Catherine, in fact it already belonged to Yakov Sverdlov.”

“Yekaterinburg was the patrimony of Sverdlov and his henchmen — including  Yakov Yurovsky and Filipp Goloshchekin. These were Sveredlov’s devotees during 1905–06, when he organized a revolutionary gang that engaged in looting, murder and expropriation,” said Multatuli.

Speakers also talked about the importance of preserving the historical names of cities. According to Tatyana Balanchuk, project manager of the St. Catherine Foundation, “the topic of preserving names and toponymy is very relevant now.”

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Tatyana Balanchuk, project manager of the St. Catherine Foundation

“Russian cities were often named in relation to what was produced in a city, such as in honor of the heavenly patron or in honor of a river, which flows nearby, etc.” said Multatuli. “Many names which reflected the Tsarist era were changed after the 1917 Revolution. Many streets named after prominent figures of Russian history are forgotten, instead they reflect those from the Soviet period.”

The historian noted that the original names, which were assigned to the streets at the time of their creation at one or another period of history, could tell a lot about the history of this place, and history needs to be studied in order to educate a citizen in a person who will be responsible for his country .

***

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Russian historian Peter Multatuli, Ph.D.

Peter Valentinovich Multatuli was born in Leningrad on 17 November 1969. He is a Russian journalist, historian and biographer. Multatuli is the author of numerous books and articles about the reign of Emperor Nicholas II. He is the great-grandson of Ivan Kharitonov (1872-1918), who served as the Head Cook of the Imperial family. He followed the tsar and his family into exile, and was murdered along with them in the Ipatiev House on 17th July 1918.

His comprehensive Russian language studies of the life and reign of Emperor Nicholas II are often overlooked or simply ignored by his Western counterparts.

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Российская империя в эпоху правления императора Николая Второго
Russia During the Reign of Emperor Nicholas II

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Click on the image to review the new site (in Russian only)

The era of the reign of Emperor Nicholas II (1894–1917) remains one of the most prominent in the history and development of Russia.

Rapid economic development, the strengthening of the state’s defense, peace-loving external initiatives, outstanding scientific discoveries, the successes of public education, advanced social policy for this period — were all achieved in a short historical period. Thanks to the policies and reforms of Nicholas II, sophisticated state administration and the talents of statesmen, helped shape the necessary union which produced such brilliant results.

Topics found in the new Russian site include monetary, agrarian, military reforms, industrialization, energy, public health, scientific breakthroughs, Russian Geographical Society, constitutional state, foreign and domestic trade, religious and church life, mail, telegraph and postal services, charity and patronage, the birth of Russian aviation, foreign policy, and much more.

Please note that this Russian language site is still under development, and once complete will also feature articles, news, and videos.

***

On a personal note, I would like to add that this new Russian site is of great importance. It allows us to reexamine what we have been led to believe is the truth on the era of Nicholas II, from the many books and documentaries produced over the past fifty years. Many have been written by people who have failed to examine all the facts, especially those from Russian sources.

As an example, during a BBC radio programme Beyond Belief held on 20th August 2018, the programmes’ host Ernie Rea was joined by four guests to discuss Russia’s last emperor and tsar. Among them was Andrew Phillips, Archpriest of the Russian Orthodox Church (ROCOR) and rector of St. John of Shanghai Orthodox Church in Colchester, England, who stated during the programme that “Nicholas II was a reforming tsar”. Fellow panelist and Romanov historian Helen Rappaport did not comment on Father Andrew’s statement, however, she wasted little time in taking to social media to rebuke him. “The assertion by Father Andrew that he [Nicholas II] was a reforming tsar took it too far” – she argued during a discussion on Facebook with her “Romanov circuit”.

I also believe that Nicholas II was a reforming tsar, the information presented in this new Russian site providing the facts. Therefore, I respectfully disagree with Dr. Rappaport’s comments, and her rebuke of Father Andrew’s comment alone raises a red flag.

I have argued for years that researchers need access to new documents discovered in post-Soviet archives in Russia. Perhaps this would help put an end to the obsessive rehashing by Western historians of the tragedies which befell Nicholas II during his reign. It is time to begin focusing on his reforms and achievements. I cannot emphasize enough the importance of an English version of the «Российская империя в эпоху правления императора Николая Второго» web site.

© Paul Gilbert. 18 February 2019